What Is Hicks Law in Sport
Doug – that was incredibly well said! I think your football example is relevant and relevant, and it says a lot about the state of youth sport (especially the quality and training of coaches). Your last statement is probably also true, although I`ve never seen any research on such a phenomenon – that would be incredibly interesting research. Great thought and nice to hear from you! Matthew thanks for the contribution. I see that in youth football. Many misinformed football coaches spend hours teaching their young players a wide range of dribbling moves so they can misfeed their opponents. I`ve seen coaches come to training with a list of 10 or more football moves with names like Zico, Cruyff, Stanley Matthews or Scissors, to name a few. Coaches believe that movement is critical to their team`s success. Coaches let their kids practice the movements against bright orange cones for hours, and many kids become very proficient with every move. However, if you put the player under pressure from his opponents in a match, you can almost see how his brain tries to decide which of the dozen moves to hit the defender. 99% of the time, the defender launches a devastating attack that leaves the child lying on their back and trying to figure out what went wrong. Hick`s law describes the relationship between the time it takes to prepare a motion response and the number of possible motion response alternatives. In more prosaic terms, the law states that individuals react more slowly when necessary, when it is unclear, before having to react exactly as they should react – that is, when it is not clear what kind of movement response is required.
An example of Hicks` law can be seen in football. Consider a down where the defense is unclear what kind of offensive play the opponent is likely to perform: When the ball is caught, the defense responds relatively slowly with an appropriate response. On the other hand, if the defense knows exactly what offensive play the opponent is going to play, the defense will react relatively quickly to respond with an appropriate reaction when the ball is caught. The purpose of reaction speed exercises is to improve your reaction time to a stimulus. Exercises can control an object (e.g., football or hockey puck). The reaction cue can be visual (movement of an object) or a specific command (voice) or audible (starter gun). The keyword should suit your event or sport – a starter gun for a sprinter. The following are examples of speed exercises for reacting to an external stimulus.
The following image shows what happens when feedback is also included, as is the case in closed-loop theory. It is important to define practice in relation to the law of practice. Exercise activities can vary widely, and these differences are not always appreciated, leading some people to engage in what they consider exercise activities, only to be disappointed when little or no learning follows. While the exact qualities of physical activities that enable optimal learning in sport and exercise are controversial, Anders Ericsson and colleagues have proposed the term conscious practice to capture some of the qualities that seem to be associated with learning. Conscious practice is a structured and focused practice that is relevant to improving performance. It requires concentration and/or effort and is often done alone to allow the learner to concentrate. These qualities make the conscious practice process inherently unpleasant, even if the outcome of conscious practice is enjoyable, such as the acquisition of a new skill. Mindful training activities often focus on improving the weaker components of current performance – for example, a volley of backhands in tennis. Coaches are often used to identify these components and prescribe specific mindful exercise activities to improve them – for example, exercises to practice backhand volleys at different distances from the net. These components give him the opportunity to gain more experience with the game, but do not include his conscious practice. Therefore, there is no improvement in the golfer`s game.
Wow – you know what, I really like it. Maybe you`re on to something. Hick`s Law is really about physical responses to stimuli, but psychological, mental, and emotional parallels should not be ignored. I like your hypothesis. Fitts studied what happens to machine translation when the width of each target and the distance between targets vary. If the width of the targets has been reduced to a fixed distance (e.g. 10 cm) (e.g. from 4 cm to 2 cm), the MT has increased; Participants seemed to have to move more slowly to be more precise in the spatial positioning of their taps.
Even when targets with a fixed width (e.g. 4 cm) were far apart (e.g. 10 cm to 20 cm), TM slowed down. Participants seemed to take longer to move their hand over the extra distance if they wanted to maintain the spatial accuracy of their tapping. While these results were interesting, Fitts` really important finding was that TM increased by a constant amount when the distance between targets was doubled or the size of each target was halved. Moreover, this result was basically the same for all participants tested. This means that Fitts was able to predict the TM of participants he had not yet tested with reasonable accuracy, based on the width of the targets and their distance. Of course, not all tasks that involve movement are like Fitts` tapping task, but since his research, studies of different populations and different types of movement tasks have yielded results consistent with his. These consistent results led Fitts` early observations to be considered the law of motor control.
In summary, there are three established laws for learning movement and controlling movement: the law of practice, Fitts` law, and Hick`s law. Practice law describes the relationship between practice and learning; Fitts` law describes the relationship between speed of movement and accuracy; and Hick`s Law describes the relationship between the time it takes to prepare a motion response and the number of possible motion response alternatives. The relationships described in these laws apply to many population groups and types of exercise in sports and exercise. Laws help identify practical conditions that promote movement learning and predictions about how individuals will behave in situations that require movement. As such, laws are fundamental in the discipline of sport and movement psychology (MS). While tasks involving simple movements, such as the task of tapping fitts, offer the researcher the opportunity to study motor control under controlled laboratory conditions, at first glance these movements appear to be of limited relevance to sport and exercise. However, simple movements form the basis of more complicated movements in sport and movement, and as such, Fitts` law is reflected in sport and movement-related movements. For example, pole vaulters take a long time to learn how to properly insert the tip of the pole into the high-speed box (i.e.
pole vaulters). The hole in the ground); Until then, they use a shorter approach that allows for relatively slow approach execution to achieve accurate higher ranking. In addition, climbers who try to get up very quickly to grab the next stop are less likely to place their fingers less precisely on the desired hold. What does all this psychology have to do with basketball? As with Fitts` law, the Wahl-RT task described here appears at first glance to be of limited relevance for movement in sport and exercise.