Mindel Scott

What Is a Definition for Reparation

After the 1948 war between Israel and the Arab States, the United Nations Reconciliation Commission for Palestine estimated that the Arabs who had become Palestine refugees had lost $336 million in land and movable property. The United Nations has recommended that Israel assume its responsibility and make amends. Israel refused to accept responsibility on the grounds that the losses had been caused by the Arab States that had started the war, but had agreed to pay compensation through the United Nations if it received a loan or other aid. The agreement was a rare case in which a victorious country compensated for war losses. For nearly 30 years, congressional Democrats have introduced legislation to study and develop proposals for reparations. In 1988, a U.S. law allowed reparations to Japanese Americans forced by the U.S. government to live in internment camps during World War II. The reparations consisted of a formal apology and a payment of $20,000 to each survivor who had been detained. What are the words that share a radical element or a word element with reparations? In general, the singular form of reparation is the act or process of repairing wrongdoing.

It may also refer to the act or process of reparation or the status of the repair. The case for reparations goes beyond whether they should be paid. The exact amount of reparations paid is not known due to the uncertainty surrounding payments between 1918 and 1924. The value of reparations paid during this period probably amounted to about 25 billion marks. From 1924 to 1931, Germany paid 11.1 billion marks, so that total payments amounted to about 36.1 billion marks. In the post-war period, however, Germany borrowed DM 33 billion abroad. Net payments to the rest of the world thus amounted to DM 3.1 billion. Ironically, the reparations program was most successful during the period of the largest borrowings between 1924 and 1931, when Germany paid 11.1 billion marks and lent 18 billion marks, a net transfer of 6.9 billion marks to Germany.

Although reparations have often been cited as the cause of Germany`s post-war difficulties, their direct impact was actually negligible. Reparations have never been a significant part of a large economic scale, as they represent only a small fraction of government expenditure, exports or national income. Reparations, a levy on a defeated country that forces it to pay part of the war costs of the victorious countries. After World War I, reparations were imposed on the Central Powers to compensate the Allies for part of their war costs. They were intended to replace war reparations levied as punitive measures after previous wars, as well as to compensate for economic losses. After World War II, the Allies received reparations mainly from Germany, Italy, Japan and Finland. There are two viable ways for a defeated country to pay reparations. It can pay for part of the goods and services it currently produces – part of its national income – in cash or in kind.

It may also pay part of its capital in the form of machinery, tools, rolling stock, merchant marine and the like, in cash or in kind, which forms part of its national patrimony. Paying for gold or other universal currencies is not a viable way to pay for reparations. The alleged consequence of reparations is a reduction in the income and thus standard of living of the defeated country and an increase in the income of the victor, the capitalized value of the increase corresponding to its war costs. However, there is no justification for these assumptions, either in the economics of reparations or in the historical experience they have gained. Before the Second World War, reparations were more often paid in cash than in kind. Such a method was considered easier to organize and more productive for a successful settlement (a reversed position after World War II). Cash payments can be made from accumulated capital; In this case, the paying country sells a portion of its assets held domestically or abroad, converts the proceeds into the winner`s currency and pays it to the winner`s government. The effect of capital transfers through cash payments does not necessarily have to be as worrying as that of capital transfers, although in practice both may lead to the same result. A conceivable advantage of the former is the greater chance for the paying country to sell its capital at a minimum loss. He can sell it on the most remunerative market and convert the product into the winner`s currency, while in-kind transfers are made directly to the winner and must be realistically valued based on value. After the First World War, there was some payment of benefits in kind from income.

There have been other cases of this method. From its annual production, a paying country exports certain goods to its creditors or provides them with certain services. It may, for example, ship certain quantities of raw materials, fuel or finished goods and provide transportation and labour services. He can send a number of his workers to the victors to restore the areas damaged by the war and bring them back when the work is finished. The difficulties encountered in a system of reparations for capital punishment are also present here, although to a lesser extent. Excessive export of current production may force a reduction in factory operations in defeated countries. The receipt of these goods and services by the winners interferes with their normal trading behavior. In compensation, the court ordered the payment of $563 to Yang and ordered the clinic to publish an apology on its website. A quick look at Hansard, the database of official minutes of all parliamentary debates over the past 200 years, shows that reparations are a rarely discussed topic.

In 1924, the Allies supported the Dawes Plan, which stabilized Germany`s internal finances by reorganizing the Reichsbank; A transfer committee has been set up to oversee the payment of repairs. The total liabilities were left to a later determination, but the standard pensions of DM 2.5 billion were set subject to an increase. The plan was initiated by a loan of DM 800 million to Germany. The Dawes Plan worked so well that by 1929 it was believed that strict controls on Germany could be lifted and total reparations could be fixed. This was done by the Young Plan, which set reparations at 121 billion marks, which were to be paid in 59 pensions. No sooner had the Young Plan taken effect than the Great Depression of the 1930s began and Germany`s solvency evaporated. In 1932, the Lausanne Conference proposed a reduction in reparations to the symbolic sum of 3 billion marks, but the proposal was never ratified. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and within a few years all of Germany`s major obligations under the Treaty of Versailles were rejected. The partition of this work appeared to him as a sin for which he had to make amends at all costs. As in Germany, the recovery of repairs was more costly than expected and their value to beneficiaries was lower than expected.

The candidate countries could not agree on their appropriate shares, which delayed the implementation of the programme. Meanwhile, repair capital in Japan was allowed to deteriorate, and Japan remained a deficit economy, mostly supported by the United States. as a major occupying power. The persistent deficit led the United States to halt all repairs shipments in May 1949. So far, total repairs of assets held in Japan amounted to 153 million yen, or about $39 million (at 1939 values). In addition, an unspecified sum of Japanese assets was paid overseas. The total amount of income from reparations was offset by a much higher sum, which represented the costs of relief and occupation of the victors. As in Germany, occupation costs in Japan were not distributed as repair revenues. As a result, some countries have received net reparations. Overall, however, Japan`s Allied reparations were negative; Net payments were made to Japan and Germany. The fact that these payments would have been even higher if no compensation had been received is a contentious issue; It should be noted that some of the payments were required by the repair program itself.

The initial reparations policy was identical to that of Germany and the consequences were quite similar. Japan should be stripped of its economic power, but left with enough capital to support itself and maintain a standard of living equivalent to that of other Asian countries. The repairs were to consist of a capital greater than the authorized amount. To this end, an inventory of excess capital was made in 1945 and major moves were planned. A report by U.S. Ambassador Edwin Pauley, who outlined the program, was challenged and its conclusions were later altered, reducing Japan`s responsibility. The main beneficiaries were to be the countries that Japan had occupied during the war. In the United States, reparations have been granted to some groups and offered to others.

Discussion on the topic often includes proposals for reparations for people who have been victims of brutal treatment and racist policies in the United States. History, including Native Americans and Black Americans who are descendants of enslaved African people in the United States It is difficult for me to understand how and why people would oppose a commission to investigate reparations.