Full Form of Ppf in Science
FPP is also known as the production possibility curve or transformation curve. It is important for the grower to ensure that the PPFD data you get from your grow light manufacturer is accurate and covers the full range of light. It`s relatively easy to massage this information, so consider factors such as distance from the light source, a series of measurements that take into account the average, and the minimum/maximum ratio before buying. This is another good reason why you should work with a trusted growlight partner who can offer you relevant metrics and the right tools to take full advantage of PAR, PPF and PPFD. For the producer, PAR is a term that must be used to achieve optimal lighting arrangement and optimal use. It`s also an important consideration when buying grow lights – make sure you understand how much PAR they produce, how much energy they use to produce their RAPs, and how much PAR is available to plants. These are some of the basic considerations that need to be managed before signing on that dotted line. To invest in the right horticultural lighting system to achieve your growth and business goals, you need to know the effectiveness of PPF, PPFD and photons to make informed purchasing decisions. However, these three measures should not be used as the only variables for making purchasing decisions. Several other variables such as form factor and duty cycle (CPU) must also be taken into account. PAR is photosynthetic active radiation.
PAR lights are the wavelengths of light in the visible range of 400 to 700 nanometers (nm) that drive photosynthesis (Figure 1). PAR is a widely used (and often misused) term associated with horticultural lighting. PAR is NOT a measurement or “metric” like feet, inches or pounds. Rather, it defines the type of light needed to aid photosynthesis. The quantity and spectral quality of PAR light are the important measurements to focus on. (To learn more about spectral light quality, click here.) Quantum sensors are the main tool for quantifying the light intensity of horticultural lighting systems. These sensors work with an optical filter to produce uniform sensitivity to PAR light (Figure 1) and can be used in combination with a light meter to measure instantaneous light intensity or a data logger to measure cumulative light intensity. If the economy produces less than the quantities specified in the PPF, it is a sign that the resources are not reaching their full potential.
In this case, it is possible to increase the production of some goods without reducing production in other areas. Points on the PPF curve are considered efficient and indicate that the economy`s resources are being fully utilized. This is called Pareto efficiency, which refers to the idea that an economy reaches its full potential and that there is no way to get more output from available resources. Plants and humans perceive light very differently. Humans and many other animals use what is known as phototopic vision in well-lit conditions to perceive color and light. Lumens are a unit of measurement based on a sensitivity model of the human eye under well-lit conditions, which is why the model is called the phototopic response curve (Figure 1). As you can see, the phototopic response curve is bell-shaped, showing how people are much more sensitive to green light than blue or red light. LUX candles and foot counters measure light intensity (in lumens) for commercial and residential lighting applications, the only difference between the two being the unit of area by which they are measured (LUX uses lumens/m2 and the foot candle uses lumens/ft2).
You may have noticed that the PPF has been designed in such a way that it is far from the original. Because of this, the size of the PPF slope increases, which means that the slope becomes steeper as we descend and move along the curve. The production of one good can be increased when the production of the other good is sacrificed. The production possibility frontier (PPF) is also known as the production possibility curve. Each country in our example can produce one of these products more efficiently (at a lower cost) than the other. We can say that country A has a comparative advantage over country B in car production, and country B has a comparative advantage over country A in cotton production. One of the central principles of economics is that everyone faces trade-offs because resources are limited. These trade-offs exist both in individual choices and in the production choices of entire economies.
As you explore this world and unpack the different measurements and the lamps and growing systems you need for optimal yields and healthy, tasty plants, you`ll come across a wall of acronyms. These acronyms (PAR, PPF, PPFD) rub shoulders with terms such as watts, lumens, photon efficiency, and LUX, and are all essential to help you create the perfect grow space and yield. A straight line occurs when the opportunity cost remains constant. In this scenario, the opportunity cost of producing two goods is projected as equal, regardless of where you are on the line. In reality, this scenario is unusual and PPF is more often represented as an outer curve. Product combinations that are within the limits of production possibilities represent inefficient production. This is when an economy could produce more of the two goods (i.e. move up and to the right on the chart) by reorganizing resources.
PPFD is the flux density of photosynthetic photons. The PPFD measures the amount of PAR that actually arrives in the plant, or as one scientist might say, “the number of photosynthetically active photons that fall on a given surface every second.” PPFD is a “point” measurement of a specific position on the vegetation cover and is measured in micromoles per square meter per second (μmol/m2/s). If you want to know the actual light intensity of a lamp over a designated growing area (e.g. 4` x 4`), it is important that the average of several PPFD measurements is made at a defined altitude. Lighting companies that publish the PPFD only in the center of a coverage area significantly overestimate the actual light intensity of a luminaire. A single measurement won`t tell you much, as horticultural lights are usually brightest in the center, with lighting levels decreasing as measurements are taken at the edges of the coverage area. (Empetor caution: lighting manufacturers can easily manipulate PPFD data. To ensure that you get the actual PPFD values over a defined culture range, the manufacturer must publish the following: measurement distance of the light source (vertical and horizontal), number of measurements included on average, and min/max ratio).
Fluence always publishes the average PPFD on a defined grow surface at a recommended mounting height for all our lighting systems. This data is important for managers who want to determine the exact mix of assets that will benefit a company`s bottom line the most. An economy may be able to produce all the goods and services it needs to function using PPF as a guide. However, this can actually lead to an inefficient overall allocation of resources and hinder future growth when the benefits of trading are taken into account. On the other hand, when today`s output is at the green point, the level of investment in capital goods will not be sufficient to overcome the depreciation, and the level of capital available in the future will be lower than the current level. As a result, the limit of production possibilities will shift, as shown by the green line in the graph. In other words, focusing too much on consumer goods today will hamper an economy`s ability to produce in the future. If, on the other hand, the economy were to see advances in butter-making technology, the limit of production possibilities would shift along the horizontal axis, meaning that for a given level of weapons production, the economy can produce more butter than before. If technology were to decline rather than advance, the limit of production possibilities would shift inward rather than outward.
When PPF moves outward, it involves the growth of an economy. If it moves inward, it indicates that the economy is contracting due to a lack of resource allocation and optimal productive capacity. Pareto efficiency, a concept named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, measures the efficiency of commodity allocation on the PPF. Pareto efficiency states that any point on the PPF curve is inefficient because the total production of raw materials is less than the production capacity.